The transition to the Middle Ages is marked by mass migrations all across Europe. In the Middle East, and despite clashes between the Byzantine and the Ottoman empires, these troubled times were the golden age of Byzantium. The 13th century AD is the dawning of the age of the fine arts, first in Italy, and then gradually evolving all over Europe. Renaissance brought the inglorious Middle Ages to a close; the fall of Byzantium in 1453 is considered as being the turning point towards the era of early modern history.
Shown below are 48 examples of oil lamps from the Middle Ages. Click on each lamp to enlarge the picture.